Construction Relations with Operation Purse Seine Vessel

 

 

Construction relations with Operation Purse Seine Vessel

 

Barani (2005) argued that the results of a study of 13 types of fishing gear showed that not all types of fishing equipment contributes profits evenly. Trawl catching ring is a unit that provides the highest profits for fishermen in the southern part of South Sulawesi, which tend to have  similar      demographics.
Ayodhyoa and Sondita (1996) explains that the purse seine vessels catch pelagic fish are clustered (schooling), fast swimmers (high speed) and  distant (high migration), with respect to the nature of the target fish catch and fishing gear used, the dimensions the main vessel will have an effect on some of the needs of purse seine vessels, such as:

 

1) The value of B / D enlarges the vessel resulted in improved stability, the condition is needed because the motion of the boat when circling schools of fish and the influence of concentration of the load, the weight and the forces that work and weight of the crew on one side of the net at the time of appointment.
2) The value of L /B effect on the prisoner ship propulsion, the smaller this value will adversely affect the ship’s speed (speed). High-speed vessel is required by purse seine vessels, especially when the boath chase and encircle  schools of fish.
3) The value of L /D effect on the strength of elongated vessels, enlargement of this value will result in weakening the power of the vessel lengthwise. Fyson (1985) suggested that the purse seine vessels catch these types of groups dedicated free-swimming fish, the catch is generally in large quantities, for that the ship was designed with a capacity load per unit length is higher than bottom trawling vessels  and  has a better stability.
The operating system is a purse seine gear to fish that are facing hordes beruaya, then put his fishing gear to catch schools of fish targets, owing to the nature of his arrest operation, the calculation of the main propulsion (main engine) should be able to reach speeds of circular (maneuverability) and has specially designed hull form, so that the ship has a speed that is expected and the withdrawal easier gear (lower stomach) and to have the ability if the motion and spin a good (Fyson 1985).
Ayodhyoa and Sondita (1996) suggested that the purse seine vessels are expected to have a fairly large width and small freeboard. The width of the ship that is required to provide ample working area on the deck. Large working area is intended to provide flexibility when handling the placement of the catch and fishing gear on deck. Low freeboard is required to facilitate the appointment of the nets and the catch, but it also reduces the chance of ship capsize due to gravity concentration on one side kapal.Schmid (1960) suggested that to design the purse seine vessels must meet the needs – common needs such    as:
1) The ship is designed with an efficient use of labor in accordance with the operating system of arrest.
2) The ship is designed to purse seine fishing in bad weather and calm day and night.
3) The ship is designed with attention to safety for the fishermen who make arrests.
4) Setting and hauling can be done in a short time and with due regard to fault gear.
5) Ship purse seine shall be effective  on the operation day and night.

 

1.) Relationships Behavior Fish with Purse Seine Capture Device. Baskoro and Effendy (2005) suggests that the type of fish which you want to purse seine fishing with fish that have lived clustered behavior in surface water, either clustered in the same type and size or clustered in a different type sizes. The types of fish that live on the surface layer, which on the surface layer that is a, is a layer of water that receives a lot of sunlight, then the fish are common in this layer has the power, capacity and power very good eyesight and have a sense of hearing, sense of smell and the role of the lateral line is more perfect. Good vision on the type of fish is due to the composition of his anatomy is quite perfect in his eyes retinal cell equipped with con, rod, tapeta lucida and melamine pigment and able to establish the occurrence of retinal movement. The existence of con guarantee that radopsin who were there were able to distinguish colors, while the presence of nerve endings-shaped rod, allowing pelagic fish are able to differentiate and adapt to the dark and bright with good, and also with the tapeta lucida, the usual role as a reflector and the presence of melamine pigment that helps and serves to protect the eyes from exposure to light is too strong, so that visual acuity will be kept cultivated and pursued to the maximum. Retinal movement or the movement of the retina is the arrangement of the retina with the understanding that if the con rod will find a role or roles that should be displayed. Thus, besides the surface fish are able to clarify the views around it, are also able to detect the presence of predators and the prey they hunt. On the surface of the fish lateral line well developed, this makes the surface fish are able to maintain its position against other fish in the group are nearby, and together with the sense of hearing is able to detect the presence of waves, vibrations and pressure that is different than usual with a quick, thus the surface of the fish could soon be able to detect the presence of predators and eat it foreign objects, including fishing gear that are near or come over. On the surface the fish generally have a behavior to a group, it is because of the drive to be able to get the ease of doing convoy or movement, ease of avoidance or escape from predators, easy to find and acquire food and the ease in finding habitat or environmental conditions are more ideal. In general, the surface fish have a high-speed swimming. Ability is required to be able to hunt prey, to escape and save themselves from predators, search for other environments, as well as necessary for do the convoy in connection. In general the fish surface in the form pack has always been in regular formations with direction and speed of a uniform pool. Fish swimming speed at the time must be save your self, surprise, fear, or panic, the fish generally do extra activities outside the regular, known as jump or burst swimming speed. Leap pool so generally last ten times its body length per second. Besides having a horizontal swimming speed or horizontal, surface fish species also have the ability to swim to the vertical direction. Usually the fish surface if confined as in a purse seine fishing operations it will tend to escape towards deeper water. The types of fish that belong to the pelagic schooling include tuna, skipjack, mackerel, tuna, mackerel, herring, selengseng, sardines, song, lemuru, overpasses, selar, and other similar types of fish. Behavior in groups or clusters on the fish above the objectives of the purse seine fishing can provide good benefits, simply because it allows to capture in large numbers. But also will become a problem on its own, because the fish are clustered such that if one fish escaped, although previously been imprisoned and are less likely to escape, this makes a failure in the purse seine fishing operations. Behavior of fish in the herd that has been caged with purse seine gear, will always get away, towards the vertical. If one tail only escape from the net then all members of the group can escape. If the mob was big enough it will be fragmented in sub-groups, so if some of these subgroups can escape, then some other sub-groups will probably remain trapped by purse seine gear is locked and when opportunities for escape   was  already  covered  at all, then the fish will be caught.
2.) Dimensions and Main Ship According Dohri Soedjana (1983) consists of the ship’s main           dimensions:
1) The length of the vessel (Length / L) length of the vessel can be divided into 3 categories namely LOA, LPP and LWL. Total length or LOA (Length Over All) is the horizontal distance measured vessel leading from the point of the bow up to the point linggi backward from the stern. The total length is the largest length of a vessel and the vessel is measured parallel to the keel as shown in picture 5.

 

 

 

picture: The size of the total vessel length (LOA)
(Source: Dohri and Soedjana, 1983 redrawn)

 

_ The distance along the vertical line or LPP / LBP (Perpendicular Length / Length Between Perpendicular) is the distance measured horizontally from the vertical line bow to stern with the vertical line. Straight lines bow or FP (Fore Perpendicular) is the imaginary line that lies perpendicular to the intersection between Lwl and hull in the bow. While the definition of the vertical line the stern or the AP (After Perpendicular) is an imaginary line that lies at the stern of the hull or behind the steering shaft (for vessels which have rudder axis) (Figure 6).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Picture 7 waterline length (LWL)
(Source: Dohri and Soedjana, 1983 redrawn)
2) The width of the vessel (Breadth / B) The width of the ship are generally divided into two kinds:
_ greatest width or Bmax (maximum Breadth), is the horizontal distance to the width of the largest ships, counted from one side of the outermost (Sheer) to side (Sheer) others who are dealing (Figure 8).
_ Width in or Bmoulded (Breadth molded), is the horizontal distance to the width of the largest vessels, measured from the inside skin of the ship that one to the other ships in the skin of the face.

 

 

 

picture 8 Width of ship
(Source: Dohri and Soedjana, 1983 redrawn)

3) If the vessel (Depth)
In a vessel divided into:
_ In or D (Depth), is the vertical distance measured from the lowest deck of the ship until the lowest point of the hull (Figure 9).
_ Sarat ship or d (draft), is the vertical distance measured from the water line (water line) with the highest to the lowest point of the hull (Figure 6).
Gastric_free (freeboard), is the vertical distance / vertical is measured from the water (water line) up to a sheer top.
According Fyson (1985), in the design of a ship characteristic comparison of key dimensions (L, B, D) is an important thing that must be considered. Comparison of these include:
1) Comparison between the length and width (L /B), are factors that affect the custody of motion and speed of  the ship;
2) Comparison between the width and the (B /D), are factors that affect the stability; and
3) Comparison between the length and the (L /D), are factors that affect the strength of the vessel lengthwise. Value ratio is very important dimension to determine the appearance of a fishing boat. According to Iskandar (2007), said that if the value of L / W decreases will adversely affect the speed of the ship, the value of L / D enlarges the vessel will result in lengthening power weakened, while the value of B / D enlarges the vessel will result in increased stability but the propulsive ability will deteriorate. Iskandar and Novita (2000) states, comparison of multiple values ​​of body parameters Indonesian fishing boat with a Japanese fishing boat, indicating that most of the parameters of Indonesian fishing vessels outside the range of  value  owned   by the Japanese  fishing boat.
3.) Coefficient of Beams (Coeffisien of block)

 

Coefficients form a closely connected with the stability of the ship the ship, according to Fyson (1985), the stability of fishing vessels is defined as the ability of the vessel to return to its original position after experiencing temporal moments. This moment can be caused by wind, waves, the distribution of cargo on board, the water on the deck and others. Muckel (1975) states that the stability of the vessel depends on several factors, among others, the dimensions of the ship, ship hull form that is in the water, the distribution of objects that exist on ships and ship angle against the horizontal plane. Fyson (z985) suggests that the coefficient of fineness will show the shape of the hull is based on the relationship between the widely different areas of the hull and the volume of the hull of each ship’s main dimensions, coefficient of fineness to which  the  ship  is  not  moving  (V  =  0  m / s. ), consisting of:
1) Coefficient of block (Cb), shows a comparison between the volume of the vessel with a volume displacement field that surrounds the hull beam. Cb is also known as the coefficient of the vessel body fatness (picture 10).

 

 

 

picture 10 Coefficient of Block (Cb)
(Source: Alexander and Novita, 1997 redrawn)

 

2) Coefficient of Prismatic (Cp), shows a comparison between the volume displacement of the vessel with a volume formed by the broad middle of the vessel cross-sectional area (A ⊗) and the length of the vessel at a certain water lines (Lwl). Cp is also known as the coefficient that shows the hull shape horizontally (Figure 11).
3) Vertical Prismatic Coefficient (CVP), shows a comparison between the volume displacement of the vessel with a volume formed by the vessel area in particular WL horizontally-longitudinal (Aw) and the draft of the vessel. CVP is also known as the coefficient that shows the hull shape vertically (Figure 11).

 

 

 

 

 

picture 11 of Prismatic Coefficient (Cp) and vertical Prismatic Coefficient (CVP)
(Source: Alexander and Novita, 1997 redrawn)

 

4) Coefficient of waterplan (Cw), shows the magnitude of longitudinal cross-sectional area of ​​the middle area of ​​the vessel compared with the rectangle that surrounds the area. Cw shows the hull form on the waterplan area (Figure            12).

picture 12 Coefficient of waterplane  (Cw)
(Source: Alexander and Novita, 1997            redrawn)

5) Coefficient of midship (C ⊗), shows a comparison between the middle of the vessel cross-sectional area vertically with a rectangular field that surrounds the area. C ⊗ imaged the hull shape at the center of the ship / midship (Figure 13).

 

picture 13 Coefficient of midship (C ⊗)
(Source: Alexander and Novita, 1997 redrawn)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The coefficient of the ship will be very closely related to the shape and weight of the ship. Coefficient value of vessel forms vary depending on the type of ship. The value indicates the slenderness of the ship and is closely connected with stability. The coefficient of vessel forms are also influenced by the widest part of the hull is immersed in water, the shape of the hull are immersed in water varies according to the type of vessel, where the ships that require high-speed hull form is more slender than the type of ships that require less high-speed .

 

 

 

g.) Gross Tonage (GT)

 

Before the enactment of the ship measurements that are currently applied in many countries including Indonesia, each state implement a way different measurements. Way of measuring different vessels were then cause problems for ships with the international shipping routes. According to the instructions the Minister of Transportation, the Director General of Sea Transportation later determined decision of the Director General of Sea Transportation No. PY.67/1/13-90 which contains instructions on the implementation of the measurement of Indonesian ships. Later in the decision of the Director General of Sea Transportation No. PY.67/1/13-90 mentions that there are three ways of measuring ships in Indonesia, namely:
1) Measurement for measuring vessel length of 24 (twenty four) feet or more by way of international measurement, with the formula GT = K1xV;
2) Measurement for the length of the ship of size less than 24 (twenty four) meters by means of measurement in the country, according to the formula GT = 0.353 x V;
3) Measurement for boats measuring less than 24 meters long which made the request of the owner of the ship with international measurement, with the formula GT= 0.25 x V; On May 17, 2002 DIRJEN Perla assign Sea Transport Director General’s decision No. PY.67/1/16 -02 on changes over the decision the Director General of Sea Communications No. PY.67/1/13-90. Directorate General of Sea Transportation Decision No. PY.67/1/16-02 this change and the replacement of domestic measurement formula set forth in article 26 paragraph (1) Decree of Directorate General of Sea Communications No. PY.67/1/13-90 so as to read more as follows:
Article  26  paragraph (1):
Fill dirty vessel can be obtained and determined in accordance with the following formula:
GT = 0.25 x V;
Description: V is the sum of the contents of the room below the main deck coupled with the rooms on the upper deck is closed perfectly sized not less than 1 meter

Construction relations with Operation Purse Seine Vessel

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